The War Road Project

Selahattin Erdem
May 2024

The “Development Road Project”, as envisioned, encircles South Kurdistan…Instead of calling it the “Development Road Project”, it would be more accurate and understandable to call it the “Occupation and War Road Project”.


The war in the Media Defense Zones is escalating. HPG sources state that the AKP-MHP fascist dictatorship has launched a new invasion attack against Metîna since April 16. The balance sheet of the war in April was also published by the HPG. There is a noticeable increase in air strikes and the use of banned weapons (chemical and tactical nuclear bombs) by the Turkish state. It has obviously received significant support from the US and NATO in this direction.
Against this, effective guerrilla actions were carried out in late April and early May. It is understood that the guerrilla actions, especially against the occupation forces in Metîina, dealt significant blows to the AKP-MHP fascist troops. HPG spokespersons state that dozens of fascist thugs were hit in every action. It is also stated that a Skorsky helicopter that attempted to land in the new occupation areas was also hit by the guerrillas. It is obvious that the guerrillas heroically resist against every invasion attempt.

In its current form, the invasion attacks are very intense and not at the level they announced during the winter. In this form, the Tayyip Erdoğan administration will not be able to realize the goal it has set for itself by the summer of 2024, namely “the complete destruction of the PKK in Northern Iraq”. Not to mention the “crushing of the PKK”: without the support of the KDP treachery, it would not even be able to hold on in the areas it occupies. If it is able to show partial effectiveness, it is entirely due to the support of the KDP.

So what is the Tayyip Erdoğan administration going to do or what is it planning to do? It seems that he did not get the desired result from his lavish visits to Iraq and Hewlêr. In other words, he failed to realize his goal of forming a “joint force” of Iraqi, KDP, YNK and Turkmen forces under his leadership. As before, he is still accompanied by the KDP and Turkmen gangs. Iraq and the YNK have shown that they cannot provide any military support other than “accepting the buffer zone”. What remains is the increase in trade and the famous “Development Road Project”.

There have been many evaluations on this “Development Road Project”. There were those who said it was an “invasion of Iraq project”. There were those who called it a “trap set for Iraq”. Undoubtedly, all these descriptions have their merits. It was said that many Arab states would participate in this so-called project. However, Kuwait immediately refused and stated that “it will not take part in this project”. In addition to Turkey and Iraq, there is also Qatar. In this respect, it seems unlikely that this project will be a new and alternative energy route project. Undoubtedly, Tayyip Erdoğan wants this to be the case and to become an alternative to the US-Israeli-Saudi road project and instructs his entourage accordingly. However, this is much weaker than the Azerbaijan-Turkey highway project through Karabakh.

So why does the Tayyip Erdoğan administration insist so much on this so-called project? It may have a partial connection with the desire to improve trade. Because Turkey has a great need to increase trade with Iraq, especially oil. But it can fulfill this need without such a project. Therefore, the main purpose of this project must be different. And this main purpose should be considered in connection with the war and the invasion attacks.

It is especially important to look at the background of the so-called “Development Road Project”. The road runs south of South Kurdistan and almost encircles South Kurdistan from the south. If this road is built and operates, it is obvious that the trade through the current Khabur Gate, which is operated by the KDP, will be very weakened and South Kurdistan will suffer greatly. Despite this, it is incomprehensible to many that the current KDP leadership is more eager than anyone else to build this new road. However, this can be done by bribing the KDP leadership and most probably the KDP leadership has been persuaded on this basis. In other words, the Barzanis will get as much cash as they want, while the people of South Kurdistan will lose.

The “Development Road Project” encircles South Kurdistan as envisioned. It is obvious that the Tayyip Erdoğan Administration, which failed to surround the Media Defense Zones from the south with the “Joint Force”, wants to encircle the whole of South Kurdistan from the south with the “Development Road Project” and to compensate for this deficiency in this way. Moreover, the area through which the road is to be built is what the PKK calls the “Central Region”, a region where many peoples live together with the Kurds. From time to time it is discussed that the PKK also wants to develop activity in this region. It is understood that the AKP-MHP fascist dictatorship wants to prevent the PKK from developing in this area with the road project in question and to develop its own activity in the area in question and turn it into a new gang territory under the name of “Turkmen region”. For this reason, it is more accurate and understandable to call the project in question the “Occupation and War Road Project” instead of the “Development Road Project”.

It is obvious that the AKP-MHP fascist dictatorship is planning to make this road line a new gang zone like Idlib and the Efrîn-Serekani line. Under the guise of road construction and trade, it will deploy a large number of military forces, intelligence and special forces, overtly and covertly. With these forces, it will not only occupy this area de facto, but will also try to support its ongoing occupation attacks against the Medya Defense Zones with these forces and in this way try to strike a blow to the PKK guerrilla. In this respect, this is an important situation for the people of Iraq and South Kurdistan, and a very important situation for the PKK. These attempts and efforts of the Tayyip Erdoğan administration will escalate the conflicts and war in the region rather than trade and will spread the current war in the Media Defense Z into Iraq. This is how everyone should understand this situation and see this reality.

But can such a process develop? Undoubtedly, this question cannot be answered clearly right away. This will mainly be determined by the developments and the course of the war in the region. Because the Tayyip Erdoğan administration wants to develop this situation. Because there is no other way to prolong its life in power than to develop and spread such a war. After the March 31 local elections, the policies Tayyip Erdoğan wants to pursue are becoming clearer. He clearly wants to pursue a policy of compromise and self-acceptance in Turkey and the world. Because there is no other way to protect and perpetuate the values he has accumulated by stealing and stealing for thirty years. Tayyip Erdoğan is completely consumed by the fear of protecting these stolen assets. This is how his meeting with CHP Chairman Özgür Özel and his political messages to Turkey and the world should be read. In order to achieve this, he needs to create a “common enemy”, and the “Common Struggle against Terrorism” fulfills this need. On this basis, it is making the war against the PKK and the Kurds the main item of its policy. In short, it has to further expand and expand the war against the PKK.

And will he be able to afford it? It seems that this is the main problem facing the Tayyip Erdoğan administration. He is struggling to find more forces to fight at home. The situation outside is even worse. Putin is not paying the expected and announced visit. The US visit and the Biden meeting, which had been propagandized for weeks, turned out to be a bust, and the US Administration announced that there was no such plan. The German President met with the opposition before Tayyip Erdoğan. All that was left for Tayyip Erdoğan was to go to Hewlêr to meet the Barzanis and demonstrate there. It is not yet clear who will benefit and who will harm from this Barzani-Erdoğan embrace. In short, the ‘War Road Project’ may also be the end of Tayyip Erdoğan.


This text by Selahattin Erdem was originally published in Yeni Özgür Politika in Turkish language, 08.05.2024
Translation: Riseup4Rojava Network


Turkey stuck with preparations for operation in the Gara Mountains

June 2024

Update & Explainer – Southern Kurdistan / Iraq: As previously reported, Turkey announced a comprehensive military operation in the Gara Mountains this summer, but guerrilla resistance has foiled its plans.

Earlier this year, AKP officials ramped up their war rhetoric, highlighting preparations for new military campaign in Southern Kurdistan under the pretext of the “Development Road” project, a road, rail & pipeline route connecting the port of Basra with Turkey. In spring Erdoğan highlighted near completion of a security perimeter along the Turkish-Iraqi border, aiming to permanently crush the Kurdish Freedom Movements Guerrilla by summer.

As KurdistanWatch correctly analysed, a comprehensive military operation in the Gara Mountains is of major significance. The region is crucial for the guerrillas capability to thwart wider Turkish occupation attempts in Southern Kurdistan. To proceed with an operation in Gara, Turkish occupation forces must first control Metina & parts of the Zap mountain range. This is the main goal of the large-scale operations launched in April, which essentially began with operations in Avaşîn, Zap, & Metîna from 2021 onwards.


A Source close to the Guerrilla states “relative progress of the Turkish Armed Forces was entirely due to war technology, not to the fighting capacity of the soldiers.” As the Guerrilla developed anti-drone measures, the balance on the battlefield changed dramatically. According to the guerrilla, the military wing of the PKK, close to 20 drones were destroyed during the last 16 Months

“The soldiers of the Turkish army, whose technical superiority had been neutralized, were literally trapped in Zap & Metina.” the sources continues. Ironically, Turkish armed forces had called the operation “claw-lock”. Now it is the occupiers themselves who are being locked in

In a interview given in Mid-June Besê Hozat, KCK co-chair explains: as Turkey is not able to succeed “It wants the Peshmerga & Iraq to take part in this war more openly & actively. […] They are pushing & pressuring Iraq. But Iraq has obviously not fully accepted Turkey’s impositions.”
Murat Karayilan recently noted that Iraqi participation in military actions against the Guerrilla would not only justify the invasion but also erode Iraqi sovereignty. He emphasized importance for Iraqi authorities to withstand Turkish pressure & protect their national interests.

As of today, Turkey failed to capture crucial points in Metina, vital for securing supply & transport routes for an operation in Gara. Despite massive aerial raids & use of chemical weapons Turkish forces can’t take the Guerrilla’s heavily fortified positions & war tunnels. Nevertheless, as foreseen by the Kurdish Freedom Movement attacks intensified during the last weeks: “We said that at the end of May-early June the war would intensify and gain scope. And this is what is happening now.” ads Besê Hozat.


Under the guise of economic development, Turkey’s occupation of Southern Kurdistan risks lives and livelihoods. With over 50,000 troops stationed there, part of a broader elimination campaign against Kurds, this aggression must cease in order to protect the region’s people

More Information on Turkey’s “Development Road” project and its role in the war against the Kurdish Freedom Movement

Support the Guerrilla practically and donate to the “Gas Masks for the Guerrilla campaign”

فریب ترکیه: نقش آنکارا در نسل‌کشی فلسطینیان

May 2024


نسل‌کشی اسرائیل علیه مردم فلسطین که پس از حملات حماس در 7 اکتبر وارد مرحله‌ی حتی خوفناک‌تری شده، از سوی اردوغان و دیگر اعضای رژیم آک‌پ-م‌ه‌پ حکمروا بر ترکیه با صدای بلند محکوم شده است. در روزهای اخیر، رژیم اردوغان به اقدامات ملموس‌تری ازجمله منع صادرات کالاهای صادراتی ترکیه به اسرائیل و اعلام پیوستن به شکایت آفریقای جنوبی از اسرائیل در دیوان دادگستری بین‌المللی دست‌زده است. با توجه به اینکه اردوغان خودش را رهبر جهان اسلام و مدافع فلسطینیان معرفی کرده و ترکیه با فلسطینی‌ها ابراز همبستگی کرده است، باید از خود پرسید چه چیزی روابط ترکیه با اسرائیل و ترکیه با فلسطینی‌ها را بیش‌ازپیش پیچیده می‌سازد.

بستر تاریخی روابط بین ترکیه و اسرائیل

روابط نزدیک بین دولت ترکیه و اسرائیل ریشه در همان سال‌های نخست تأسیس اسرائیل دارد. ترکیه اولین دولت خاورمیانه بود که اسرائیل را در سال 1949 به رسمیت شناخت. از آن زمان، روابط استراتژیک این دو تا به امروز ادامه داشته است. اسرائیل در چارچوب «دکترین پیرامونی» خود از زمان تأسیس آن به دنبال گسترش اتحاد با ترکیه ازجمله برای مقابله با پان‌عربیسم بوده است. شراکت‌های نظامی مهم که شامل همکاری هوایی، دریایی، زمینی و اطلاعاتی، ساخت هواپیما، تسلیحات و موشک‌ها، تعلیم و تمرین متقابل می‌شود، طی سال‌ها توسعه یافته‌اند. شایان‌ذکر است که خلبانان نیروی هوایی اسرائیل، در چارچوب رزمایش‌های مشترک با نیروهای ترکیه، در ترکیه تعلیم دیده‌اند. علی‌رغم اصطکاک‌های سطحی، به‌ویژه پس از پرونده‌ی ماوی مرمرهi که به سطح معینی از روابط دیپلماتیک لطمه زد، روابط این دولت‌ها هرگز متوقف نشد و مبادلات اقتصادی حتی در زمان اوج درگیری‌های لفظی گسترش یافت. پایگاه‌های مختلف ناتو در ترکیه برای امپریالیسم غربی در خاورمیانه، ابتدا علیه اتحاد جماهیر شوروی، بعداً برای مداخله پس از 11 سپتامبر در چارچوب به‌اصطلاح «جنگ علیه ترور»، بسیار مهم بوده است. گزارش شده است که در میان این پایگاه‌ها، از پایگاه نظامی اینجرلیکii برای پشتیبانی از ارتش اسرائیل در تهاجم کنونی آن به غزه استفاده می‌شود.


تجارت ترکیه با اسرائیل علی‌رغم نسل‌کشی ادامه دارد

درحالی‌که ترکیه خودش را به‌ویژه از طریق لفاظی‌های اردوغان مدافع فلسطینی‌ها معرفی می‌کند، توجه به این نکته افشاگر است که ترکیه ششمین عرضه‌کننده‌ی بزرگ کالا به اسرائیل است. شایان‌ذکر است که 37 درصد از تقاضای اسرائیل برای آهن و فولاد از طریق واردات از ترکیه (2022) تأمین می‌شود.i از آغاز جنگ در ماه اکتبر تا دسامبر، 700 کشتی ترکیه (8 کشتی در روز!) برای انتقال مواد حیاتی برای جنگ (نفت، فولاد، نساجی) به سمت اسرائیل رفتند. بسیاری از شرکت‌های درگیر، روابط نزدیکی با حزب عدالت و توسعه و اردوغان دارند.ii

باوجود نسل‌کشی در غزه، ترکیه به تأمین موادی که ممکن است مستقیماً برای جنایات علیه فلسطینیان در غزه استفاده شوند، ادامه داد.i علاوه بر این، مصالح ساختمانی مانند سیمان، فولاد و ماشین‌آلات وارداتی از ترکیه ممکن است در پروژه‌های ساختمانی ازجمله در مناطق اشغالی مورداستفاده قرار گیرد. این مصالح در پروژه‌های مختلف ساختمانی، ازجمله زیرساخت شهرک‌ها و ساخت حصار حائل که معمولاً به دیوار معروف است، کاربرد پیدا می‌کنند. هنگامی‌که ترکیه در ماه آوریل برای اولین بار صادرات ترکیه به اسرائیل را محدود کرد، بیش از 30.000 فلسطینی کشته شده، 3/2 میلیون نفر آواره شده و بخش‌های بزرگی از نوار غزه به ویرانه بدل شده بود.
ممنوعیت کامل صادراتی که اردوغان در 3 مه اعلام کرد نیز به نظر نمی‌رسد تا امروز به‌طور کامل اجرا شده باشد.i وقتی این قضیه از طریق تحقیقات روزنامه‌نگاران فاش شد، وزارت بازرگانی ترکیه عقب‌نشینی کرد و یک بازه‌ی سه‌ماهه را برای حذف تدریجی تجارت با اسرائیل اعلام کرد. نفت آذربایجان، تأمین‌کننده‌ی اصلی نفت خام اسرائیل (40 درصد از تأمین نفت اسرائیل به آذربایجان بستگی داردii) نیز ظاهراً همچنان از طریق بندر جیهان ترکیه ارسال می‌شود.iii


گام‌هایی همچون منع صادرات که اخیراً اعلام شده و اعلام پیوستن به دادرسی علیه اسرائیل در دیوان دادگستری بین‌المللی از روی حسن نیت برداشته نمی‌شوند. فشار سیاسی داخلی از سوی احزاب و جنبش‌های اسلام‌گرا درون ترکیه که دولت اردوغان را به بی‌عملی متهم می‌کنند و درنتیجه توانستند در انتخابات منطقه‌ای ماه مارس، آرای حزب عدالت و توسعه را از آن خود کنند، اردوغان را به اقدام واداشت. این مسئله با نگاهی به سرکوب وحشیانه‌ی اعتراضات علیه روابط تجاری با اسرائیل نیز آشکار می‌شود.

حمایت ترکیه از حماس: منزوی کردن غزه

درحالی‌که ترکیه روابط اقتصادی نزدیکی با اسرائیل دارد و از فناوری جنگی اسرائیل که در غزه آزمایش شده‌ است نفع می‌برد، روابط تنگاتنگ خود را با حماس حفظ می‌کند. تا اکتبر 2023، بسیاری از مقامات و رهبران بلندپایه‌ی حماس در ترکیه و قطر در تبعید بودند. تنها پس از حملات حماس در 7 اکتبر بود که از ترس آسیب رساندن به روابط ترکیه و اسرائیل، از آن کشور اخراج شدند.i حماس که مانند دیگر جنبش‌های اسلام‌گرا در روزهای آغازین تأسیس آنii برای تضعیف وحدت فلسطین و به حاشیه راندن جنبش‌های سوسیالیستی در فلسطین موردپشتیبانی دولت اسرائیل قرار گرفت، از حمایت سیاسی ترکیه نیز برخوردار شد. ترکیه با پشتیبانی خود به‌طور غیرمستقیم از استراتژی اسرائیل برای انزوای فلسطینیان غزه از فلسطینیان کرانه‌ی باختری حمایت کرده است. اردوغان که اخیراً در یک کنفرانس مطبوعاتی در یونان اعلام کرد بیش از 1.000 عضو حماس در بیمارستان‌های ترکیه تحت درمان هستند،iii همواره از مسئله‌ی فلسطین به‌عنوان وسیله‌ای برای نمایش دادن خودش به‌عنوان میانجی -مانند جنگ اوکراین- و حفظ وجهه‌ی یک بازیگر مهم منطقه‌ای استفاده کرده است.


افشای رژیم آک‌پ-م‌ه‌پ ترکیه

با روشن کردن ریاکاری ترکیه پیرامون نسل‌کشی در غزه آشکار می‌شود که مانورهای اردوغان چیزی جز نمای ظاهری نیستند. اقدامات ترکیه به نظر می‌رسد در حمایت از فلسطین باشند، اما تحت‌الشعاع همدستی ترکیه در دامن زدن به همان ظلم و ستمی هستند که ادعای مخالفت با آن را دارد. اگر تلاش‌های اردوغان برای تصویر کردن خودش به‌عنوان مدافع حقوق فلسطینی‌ها از دریچه‌ی ائتلاف‌های استراتژیک و منافع اقتصادی ترکیه نگریسته شوند، پوچ و توخالی هستند. ضروری است که از این ریاکاری پرده برداریم و رژیم آک‌پ-م‌ه‌پ را در قبال موضع فرصت‌طلبانه‌ی آن پاسخگو سازیم. فاشیسم ترکیه در قالب رژیم آک‌پ هیچ راه‌حلی عرضه نمی‌کند. نه برای فلسطین و نه برای خاورمیانه. لفاظی رژیم در رابطه با اسرائیل هم لفاظی و هم ریاکاری محض است: درحالی‌که ترکیه علناً اسرائیل را به خاطر حملات به غیرنظامیان موردانتقاد قرار می‌دهد، جنگنده‌ها و پهپادهای ترکیه زیرساخت‌های غیرنظامی را به‌طور نظام‌مندی در روژاوا شمال شرق سوریه در ماه دسامبر و ژانویه تخریب کردند.i با افشای ریاکاری اردوغان، می‌توانیم صداهای مترقی را برای مقابله با فاشیسم ترکیه تقویت کنیم و در همبستگی با آرمان‌های راستین مردم فلسطین و مردم روژاوا بایستیم.

حمله‌ی سربازان اسرائیل به کشتی ماوی مرمره حامل کمک‌های بشردوستانه به مردم تحت محاصره‌ی غزه در آب‌های بین‌المللی در تاریخ 31 مه 2010.

1 https://oec.world/en
2 https://www.turkishminute.com/2024/02/28/more-than-100-ton-of-good-shipped-israel-from-turkish-ports-in-last-3-days-alone-journalist/
3 https://x.com/snarwani/status/1775525493627879678
4 https://medyanews.net/turkey-bypasses-total-trade-ban-with-israel-facilitates-azerbaijani-oil-shipments-via-ceyhan/
5 https://oec.world/en/profile/bilateral-product/crude-petroleum/reporter/isr
6 https://www.intellinews.com/turkey-reportedly-still-loading-azerbaijani-oil-for-israel-despite-total-trade-ban-323947/
7 https://archive.ph/FlkK6
8 https://www.wsj.com/articles/SB123275572295011847
https://archive.ph/rwKYm#selection-1159.0-1159.313
9 https://www.al-monitor.com/originals/2024/05/erdogan-rebukes-greek-pm-calling-hamas-terrorists-says-1000-members-being-treated
10 https://rojavainformationcenter.org/2023/12/update-turkeys-christmas-airstrikes-targeting-nes-civilian-service-facilities-and-infrastructure/
https://rojavainformationcenter.org/2024/01/turkish-airstrikes-on-suwaydiyah-power-station-documenting-the-damage/


Overview on recent attacks: Turkish crimes in the run up to Elections in North-East Syria

May 2024

Picture: @ScharoMaroof / @__SeyyidAhmed


For weeks, Turkey has been launching massive artillery attacks on areas in northern and eastern Syria. The regions most affected are around Minbic, Shehba, and Ain Issa.

Minbic is located 30 kilometers south of the Turkish border and holds a crucial strategic position in Turkey’s plans to expand its illegal occupation zone in Syria. The city, administered by DAANES, is situated on the important M4 highway, which runs through northern Syria like a lifeline. This route was previously a strategic supply line for the terrorist group “Islamic State” (IS).

In the region of Shehba, north of Aleppo, hundreds of thousands of displaced people from Efrîn live.

On May 18th, villages in the Shehba area were subjected to artillery and mortar attacks, causing severe injuries to a 13-year-old and a 14-year-old boy. Faris Xelef Ibrahim, aged 13, underwent an emergency leg amputation procedure. Despite the dedicated efforts doctors were not able to save his life. He passed away the following day.

On May 23, Turkey and Turkish-backed Islamist troops shelled a dozen villages around Minbic with more than 200 artillery shells. One rocket hit the house of Fateem Al-Dandan, killing the 55-year-old woman on the spot. Her husband was seriously injured and taken to a nearby hospital. Five other people were also injured, some of them seriously.

The attacks by Turkey have targeted not only civilian areas but also agricultural lands. Between May 4th and 7th alone, more than 30 different locations were bombarded. As a result, wheat fields burned for days, destroying a significant part of the wheat harvest in the Euphrates region. According to estimates by the Democratic Autonomous Administration, 500 hectares of grain crops and 18,000 olive trees have been destroyed in the attacks of recent weeks. Destruction on this scale poses an acute threat to the region, which is predominantly dependent on agriculture.The deliberate destruction of agricultural land is considered a war crime under international law. However, Turkey has been using this tactic against the population for years.

A few days ago, Turkey-aligned groups set fire to agricultural lands near the frontline close to Zarghan. The local population remains on high alert around the clock, guarding their fields to act immediately in case of a fire. The HPC (Civil Defence Forces) have set up watch posts on many agricultural sites.
Villages on the northern front of Minbic continue to face artillery bombardment, and the SDF reported thwarting infiltration attempts by Turkey-aligned Islamist militias.

Fears of further escalation in northeastern Syria by Turkey are growing. This follows a sudden legal amendment by the Erdogan regime, granting the president authority to declare war and mobilize forces, and recent statements from MHP leaders calling for cooperation with Assad against the YPG.

Amid renewed attacks by Turkey, preparations for the municipal elections in northeastern Syria are in full swing. In mid-June, millions will go to the polls to elect their representatives in the grassroots democratic structures of the people’s councils and the co-chairs of the municipalities. This extraordinary democratic model, which protects minority rights and guarantees women a central role in all aspects of life, is a thorn in Turkey’s side. It is highly likely that Turkey and ISIS will attempt to sabotage the elections.

Riseup4Rojava Network, 28.05.2024


Türkiye’nin aldatmacası: Ankara’nın Filistin soykırımındaki rolü

May 2024


7 Ekim Hamas saldırılarının ardından daha da korkunç bir aşamaya giren İsrail’in Filistin halkına yönelik soykırımı, Erdoğan ve Türkiye’yi yöneten AKP-MHP rejiminin diğer üyeleri tarafından yüksek sesle kınanırken, son günlerde Erdoğan rejimi, Türkiye’nin İsrail’e ihracatını yasaklamak ve Güney Afrika’nın Uluslararası Adalet Divanı’nda İsrail’e karşı açtığı davaya katılacağını duyurmak gibi daha somut adımlar attı. Türkiye Filistinlilerle dayanışmasını her ne kadar ifade etse de, Erdoğan da kendisini Müslüman dünyasının lideri ve Filistinlilerin lideri olarak tanıtsa da Türkiye ile İsrail arasındaki giderek karmaşıklaşan ilişkilere neyin yön verdiğini merak etmek gerekiyor.

Türk-İsrail ilişkilerinin tarihsel bağlamı

İsrail ile Türk devleti arasındaki yakın ilişkinin kökleri İsrail’in kuruluşunun ilk yıllarına dayanmaktadır. Türkiye, 1949 yılında Ortadoğu’da İsrail’i tanıyan ilk devlet oldu. O tarihten bu yana iki ülke arasındaki stratejik ilişkiler günümüze kadar devam etti. İsrail, “çevre doktrini” çerçevesinde, kuruluşundan bu yana, diğerlerinin yanı sıra, pan-arabisme karşı koymak için Türkiye ile ittifaklar geliştirmeye çalıştı. Yıllar içinde hava, deniz, kara ve istihbarat işbirliği, uçak, silah ve füze üretimi, karşılıklı eğitim ve tatbikatları içeren askeri ortaklıklar geliştirildi. İsrail hava kuvvetleri pilotlarının Türk kuvvetleriyle ortak tatbikatlar çerçevesinde Türkiye’de eğitim alması dikkat çekicidir. Yüzeysel sürtüşmelere rağmen, özellikle diplomatik bağların belirli bir düzeye zarar verdiği Mavi Marmara olayının ardından, devletler arasındaki ilişkiler hiçbir zaman kesilmedi ve retorik çatışmaların zirve yaptığı dönemlerde bile ekonomik alışverişler daha da gelişti. Türkiye’deki farklı NATO üsleri, Ortadoğu’daki batı emperyalizmi için, başlangıçta Sovyetler Birliği’ne karşı, daha sonra da 11 Eylül sonrası sözde “teröre karşı savaş” çerçevesindeki müdahale için büyük önem taşıyordu. Bu üslerden İncerlik askeri üssünün, Gazze’deki mevcut işgalinde İsrail ordusunu desteklemek için kullanıldığı bildirildi.


Türkiye’nin İsrail’le ticareti soykırıma rağmen devam ediyor

Türkiye, özellikle Erdoğan’ın söylemleriyle kendisini Filistinlilerin savunucusu olarak sunarken, Türkiye’nin İsrail’in altıncı en büyük mal tedarikçisi konumunda olduğunu açıkça görülüyor. Özellikle İsrail’in Demir-Çelik talebinin %37’si Türkiye’den yapılan ithalat yoluyla karşılanıyor. Savaşın başlangıcından Aralık ayına kadar 700 Türk gemisi (günde 8) savaş için önemli malzemeleri (petrol, çelik, tekstil) taşımak üzere İsrail’e gdiyor. İlgili şirketlerin birçoğunun AKP ve Erdoğa ile yakın bağları var.

Gazze’de yaşanan soykırıma rağmen Türkiye, Gazze’de Filistinlilere yönelik zulümlerde doğrudan kullanılabilecek malzemeleri sağlamaya devam ediyor. Ayrıca Türkiye’den ihraç edilen çimento, çelik ve makine gibi inşaat malzemeleri, işgal altındaki alanlar da dahil olmak üzere inşaat projelerinde kullanılıyor. Bu malzemeler, altyapıyı destekleyen yerleşim yerleri ve genellikle duvar olarak bilinen ayırma bariyerinin inşası da dahil olmak üzere çeşitli inşaat projelerinde uygulama alanı bulmaktadır. Türkiye, nisan ayında ilk kez Türkiye’den İsrail’e ihracatı kısıtladığını belirttiğinde 30.000’den fazla Filistinli öldürüldü, 2,3 milyon insan yerinden edildi ve Gazze Şeridi’nin büyük bir kısmı moloz yığınına dönüştü.

Erdoğan’ın 3 Mayıs’ta açıkladığı toplam ihracat yasağı da bugüne kadar tam anlamıyla hayata geçirilmiş gibi görünmüyor. Bu uygulama gazetecilik araştırmaları sonucunda ortaya çıkınca, Türkiye Ticaret Bakanlığı sözde geri adım attı ve İsrail ile ticarete üç aylık aşamalı olarak son verme dönemi başlattığını açıkladı. İsrail’in ana ham petrol tedarikçisi olan Azerbaycan’dan gelen petrol (İsrail’in petrol arzının %40’ı Azerbaycan’a bağlıdır) görünüşe göre hâlâ Ceyhan’daki bir Türk limanından taşınmaktadır.

Yakın zamanda açıklanan ihracat yasağı ve İsrail’e karşı UAD nezdindeki davaya katılma duyurusu gibi adımlar iyi niyetle atılmıyor. Faşist Erdoğan hükümetini eylemsizlikle suçlayan ve bu sayede Mart ayındaki bölgesel seçimlerde AKP’den oy alabilen İslamcı parti ve hareketlerin iç siyasi baskıları nedeniyle Erdoğan harekete geçti. İsrail ile ticari ilişkilere karşı yapılan protestolara yönelik acımasız baskıya bakıldığında da bu durum açıkça görülüyor.


Türkiye’nin Hamas’a desteği: Gazze’yi izole etmek

Türkiye, İsrail’le yakın ekonomik bağlarını sürdürürken ve İsrail’in Gazze’de test ettiği savaş teknolojisinden yararlanırken, Hamas’la sıkı ilişkilerini sürdürüyor. Ekim 2023’e kadar birçok Hamas yetkilisi ve üst düzey lider Türkiye ve Katar’daydı. Ancak 7 Ekim’deki Hamas saldırılarından sonra Türkiye-İsrail ilişkilerine zarar verme korkusuyla ülkeden sınır dışı edildiler. Filistin birliğini zayıflatmak ve Filistin’deki sosyalist hareketleri ötekileştirmek amacıyla diğer İslamcı hareketler gibi ilk dönemlerinde İsrail devleti tarafından da desteklenen Hamas, Türkiye’den siyasi destek aldı. Türkiye, verdiği destekle İsrail’in Gazze’deki Filistinlileri Wets Bank’taki Filistinlilerden izole etme stratejisine dolaylı olarak destek verdi.

Geçtiğimiz günlerde Yunanistan’da düzenlediği basın toplantısında 1000’den fazla Hamas üyesinin Türk hastanelerinde tedavi gördüğünü açıklayan Erdoğan, Filistin meselesini her zaman (Ukrayna savaşında da olduğu gibi) kendisini arabulucu olarak gösterme aracı olarak kullanmış ve bölgede iyi bir oyuncu olarak imajını korumaya çalışmıştır.


Türkiye’deki AKP-MHP rejimini ifşa edin

Gazze’deki Soykırımı çevreleyen Türk ikiyüzlülüğüne ışık tutan Erdoğan’ın manevralarının göstermelikten başka bir şey olmadığı açıkça ortaya çıkıyor. Türkiye’nin eylemleri görünüşte Filistin’i destekliyor gibi görünüyor, ancak karşı çıktığını iddia ettiği zulmü körüklemedeki suç ortaklığı nedeniyle gölgede kalıyor. Erdoğan’ın kendisini Filistinlilerin haklarının savunucusu olarak gösterme çabaları, Türkiye’nin stratejik ittifakları ve ekonomik çıkarları açısından bakıldığında içi boş görünüyor. Bu ikiyüzlülüğü ortaya çıkarmanın ve AKP-MHP rejiminden fırsatçı tavırlarının hesabının sorulması şarttır. AKP rejimi biçimindeki Türk faşizmi hiçbir çözüm sunmuyor. Ne Filistin için ne de Ortadoğu için. Rejimin İsrail’e yönelik söylemi hem retorik hem de ikiyüzlülükten ibaret: Türkiye, sivillere yönelik saldırıları nedeniyle açıkça İsrail’i kınarken, Türk savaş uçakları ve insansız hava araçları Aralık ve Ocak aylarında Kuzeydoğu Suriye ve Rojava’daki sivil altyapıyı sistematik olarak saldırmaya devam ediyor. Erdoğan’ın ikiyüzlülüğünü ortaya çıkararak, Türk faşizmine karşı durarak Filistin halkının ve Rojava halkının gerçek özlemleriyle dayanışma içinde olacak ilerici sesleri güçlendirebiliriz.

Riseup4Rojava Network, 16.05.2024

1 https://oec.world/en
2 https://www.turkishminute.com/2024/02/28/more-than-100-ton-of-good-shipped-israel-from-turkish-ports-in-last-3-days-alone-journalist/
3 https://x.com/snarwani/status/1775525493627879678
4 https://medyanews.net/turkey-bypasses-total-trade-ban-with-israel-facilitates-azerbaijani-oil-shipments-via-ceyhan/
5 https://oec.world/en/profile/bilateral-product/crude-petroleum/reporter/isr
6 https://www.intellinews.com/turkey-reportedly-still-loading-azerbaijani-oil-for-israel-despite-total-trade-ban-323947/
7 https://archive.ph/FlkK6
8 https://www.wsj.com/articles/SB123275572295011847
https://archive.ph/rwKYm#selection-1159.0-1159.313
9 https://www.al-monitor.com/originals/2024/05/erdogan-rebukes-greek-pm-calling-hamas-terrorists-says-1000-members-being-treated
10 https://rojavainformationcenter.org/2023/12/update-turkeys-christmas-airstrikes-targeting-nes-civilian-service-facilities-and-infrastructure/
https://rojavainformationcenter.org/2024/01/turkish-airstrikes-on-suwaydiyah-power-station-documenting-the-damage/


L’inganno della Turchia: il ruolo di Ankara nel genocidio palestinese

Maggio 2024

Il genocidio commesso da Israele contro il popolo palestinese, che è entrato in una fase ancora più orribile dopo gli attacchi di Hamas del 7 ottobre, è stato fortemente condannato da Erdogan e altri membri del regime AKP-MHP che governa la Turchia. Negli ultimi giorni il regime di Erdogan ha adottato misure più concrete, come vietare l’esportazione di esportazioni turche in Israele e annunciare che si unirà alla causa del Sudafrica contro Israele presso la Corte internazionale di giustizia. Per quanto la Turchia abbia espresso solidarietà con i palestinesi, per quanto Erdogan si sia presentato come leader del mondo musulmano e sostenitore dei palestinesi, bisogna chiedersi cosa stia guidando le relazioni sempre più complicate tra Turchia e Israele da un lato, e Turchia e i Palestinesi dall’altro.

Contesto storico delle relazioni turche israeliane

La stretta relazione tra Israele e lo stato turco ha le sue radici nei primi anni della creazione di Israele. La Turchia fu il primo stato in Medio Oriente a riconoscere Israele, nel 1949. Da allora, le relazioni strategiche tra i due sono perdurate fino ad oggi. Nella cornice della sua “dottrina periferica”, Israele ha cercato dalla sua fondazione di sviluppare alleanze con la Turchia, tra l’altro per contrastare il pan-arabismo. Sono stati sviluppati importanti partenariati militari che includono cooperazione aerea, terrena e marittima, nel campo dell’intelligence, della produzione di aeromobili, armamenti e missili, addestramento reciproco ed esercitazioni sono stati condotti insieme negli ultimi anni. In particolare, i piloti israeliani aeronautici si sono allenati in Turchia nel quadro degli esercizi congiunti con le forze turche. Nonostante gli attriti superficiali, in particolare seguendo il caso Mavi Marmara che ha danneggiato ad un certo livello di legami diplomatici, la relazione tra I due stati non ha mai cessato e gli scambi economici si sono ulteriormente sviluppati anche durante il picco degli scontri retorici. Le diverse basi della NATO in Turchia sono state notevolmente importanti per l’imperialismo occidentale in Medio Oriente, inizialmente contro l’Unione Sovietica, poi in seguito per l’intervento dopo l’11 settembre nella cornice della cosiddetta “guerra al terrore”. Tra quelle basi, è stato riferito che la base militare di Inerlik è stata utilizzata per sostenere i militari israeliani nell’attuale invasione di Gaza.

Il commercio turco con Israele continua nonostante il genocidio

Mentre la Turchia si presenta come un difensore dei palestinesi, specialmente attraverso la retorica di Erdogan, è significativo notare che la Turchia è il sesto più grande fornitore di merci d’ Israele. In particolare, il 37% della domanda di Israele di ferro e acciaio viene soddisfatto attraverso le importazioni dalla Turchia (2022) 1. Dall’inizio della guerra in ottobre fino dicembre, 700 navi turche sono andate in Israele (8 al giorno!) per trasportare materiale cruciale per la guerra (petrolio, acciaio, tessile). Molte delle aziende coinvolte hanno legami con l’AKP ed Erdogan2.

Nonostante il genocidio in corso a Gaza, la Turchia ha continuato a fornire materiali che possono essere utilizzati direttamente per le atrocità contro i palestinesi di Gaza3. Inoltre, i materiali da costruzione come cemento, acciaio e macchinari esportati dalla Turchia potrebbero essere utilizzati nei progetti di costruzione, compresi quelli nelle aree occupate da Israele. Questi materiali trovano l’applicazione in vari progetti di costruzione, tra cui infrastrutture a supporto degli insediamenti e la costruzione della barriera di separazione, comunemente nota come muro. Quando la Turchia ha deciso di limitare le esportazioni dalla Turchia a Israele per la prima volta ad aprile, erano già state uccise oltre 30.000 palestinesi, 2,3 milioni di persone erano state sfollate e gran parte della striscia di Gaza era già stata ridotta in macerie.

Anche il divieto di esportazione totale annunciato da Erdogan il 3 maggio non sembra essere stato completamente attuato fino ad oggi4. Quando questa pratica è stata scoperta attraverso indagini giornalistiche, il Ministero del commercio turco ha fatto marcia indietro e ha introdotto un periodo di tre mesi di blocco al commercio con Israele. Il petrolio proveniente dall’Azerbaigian, il principale fornitore israeliano di petrolio greggio (il 40% della fornitura di petrolio israeliana dipende dall’Azerbaigian5), apparentemente viene ancora spedito attraverso un porto turco a Ceyhan6.

Passi come il divieto di esportazione recentemente annunciato e l’annuncio di aderire ai procedimenti contro Israele prima che l’IGJ non si tratti di avviamento. Partiti islamisti e movimenti interni alla Turchia, accusando il governo di Erdogan di inazione, hanno da un lato strappato voti all’AKP alle elezioni regionali di marzo, e dall’altro creato pressione politica che ha costretto Erdogan ad agire. Ciò diventa anche chiaro quando si guarda la brutale repressione delle proteste contro le relazioni commerciali con Israele.


Il supporto della Turchia per Hamas: isolare Gaza

Mentre lo stato turco mantiene stretti legami economici con Israele e beneficia della tecnologia di guerra israeliana testata a Gaza, la Turchia mantiene anche strette relazioni con Hamas. Fino all’ottobre 2023, molti funzionari di Hamas e leader di alto rango erano in esilio in Turchia e Qatar. Fu solo dopo gli attacchi di Hamas il 7 ottobre che furono espulsi dal paese per paura di danneggiare le relazioni turche-israeliane7. Hamas, che, come altri movimenti islamisti, era anche sostenuto dallo stato israeliano nei suoi primi giorni8, al fine di indebolire l’unità palestinese ed emarginare i movimenti socialisti in Palestina, ha ricevuto sostegno politico dalla Turchia. Con il suo sostegno, la Turchia ha supportato indirettamente la strategia israeliana di isolare i palestinesi a Gaza dai palestinesi in Cisgiordania (West bank).

Erdogan, che ha recentemente annunciato in una conferenza stampa in Grecia che più di 1.000 membri di Hamas sono stati trattati negli ospedali turchi9, ha sempre usato la questione palestinese come mezzo per presentarsi come mediatore – come nel caso della guerra ucraina – e mantenere l’immagine di un giocatore importante nella regione.

Esporre il regime turco AKP-MHP

Nel fare luce sull’ipocrisia turca che circonda il genocidio di Gaza, diventa evidente che le manovre di Erdogan sono a dir poco una facciata. Le azioni della Turchia, in superficie, sembrano essere a sostegno della Palestina, ma sono superate dalla sua complicità nel alimentare la stessa oppressione a cui dichiara di opporsi. I tentativi di Erdogan di dipingersi come un promotore di diritti dei palestinesi sono vuoti, se visti attraverso le lenti delle alleanze strategiche e degli interessi economici della Turchia. È indispensabile che presentiamo questa ipocrisia e riteniamo il regime AKP-MHP responsabile della loro postura opportunistica. Il fascismo turco, sotto forma del regime AKP, non offre soluzioni. Né per la Palestina né per il Medio Oriente. La retorica del regime, in relazione a Israele, è sia semplice retorica che ipocrisia: mentre la Turchia attacca pubblicamente Israele per gli attacchi a civili, jet da combattimento e droni turchi hanno sistematicamente distrutto le infrastrutture civili in Rojava, la Siria settentrionale, a dicembre e gennaio10. Esponendo l’ipocrisia di Erdogan, possiamo dare potere alle voci progressiste di affrontare il fascismo turco e stare in solidarietà con le autentiche aspirazioni del popolo palestinese e del popolo di Rojava.

Riseup4Rojava Network, 16.05.2024

1 https://oec.world/en
2 https://www.turkishminute.com/2024/02/28/more-than-100-ton-of-good-shipped-israel-from-turkish-ports-in-last-3-days-alone-journalist/
3 https://x.com/snarwani/status/1775525493627879678
4 https://medyanews.net/turkey-bypasses-total-trade-ban-with-israel-facilitates-azerbaijani-oil-shipments-via-ceyhan/
5 https://oec.world/en/profile/bilateral-product/crude-petroleum/reporter/isr
6 https://www.intellinews.com/turkey-reportedly-still-loading-azerbaijani-oil-for-israel-despite-total-trade-ban-323947/
7 https://archive.ph/FlkK6
8 https://www.wsj.com/articles/SB123275572295011847
https://archive.ph/rwKYm#selection-1159.0-1159.313
9 https://www.al-monitor.com/originals/2024/05/erdogan-rebukes-greek-pm-calling-hamas-terrorists-says-1000-members-being-treated
10 https://rojavainformationcenter.org/2023/12/update-turkeys-christmas-airstrikes-targeting-nes-civilian-service-facilities-and-infrastructure/
https://rojavainformationcenter.org/2024/01/turkish-airstrikes-on-suwaydiyah-power-station-documenting-the-damage/


El engaño de Turquía: el papel de Ankara en el genocidio palestino

May 2024


El genocidio cometido por Israel contra el pueblo palestino, que ha entrado en una fase aún más terrible tras los ataques de Hamás del 7 de octubre, ha sido condenado enérgicamente por Erdogan y otros miembros del régimen del AKP-MHP que gobierna Turquía, y en los últimos días el régimen de Erdogan ha tomado medidas más concretas, como prohibir las exportaciones turcas a Israel y anunciar que se unirá a la demanda de Sudáfrica contra Israel ante la Corte Internacional de Justicia. Por mucho que Turquía haya expresado solidaridad con las palestinas, por mucho que Erdogan se haya presentado como líder del mundo musulmán y defensor de las palestinas, una tiene que preguntarse qué está impulsando las relaciones cada vez más coercitivas entre Turquía e Israel y Turquía y las Palestinas.

Contexto histórico de las relaciones turco-israelíes

La estrecha relación entre Israel y el Estado turco tiene sus raíces en los primeros años de la creación de Israel. Turquía fue el primer Estado de Oriente Medio en reconocer a Israel, en 1949. Desde entonces, la relación estratégica entre ambos ha perdurado hasta hoy. En el marco de su “doctrina de la periferia”, Israel ha buscado desde su fundación desarrollar alianzas con Turquía, entre otras cosas para contrarrestar el panarabismo. A lo largo de los años se han desarrollado importantes asociaciones militares que incluyen cooperación aérea, marítima, terrestre y de inteligencia, fabricación de aviones, armamento y misiles, y entrenamiento compartido. Sorprendentemente, los pilotos de la fuerza aérea israelí se han estado entrenando en Turquía en el marco de ejercicios conjuntos con las fuerzas turcas. A pesar de las fricciones superficiales, en particular tras el caso Mavi Marmara, que dañó cierto nivel de relaciones diplomáticas, la relación entre los Estados nunca cesó y los intercambios económicos se desarrollaron aún más durante los picos de enfrentamientos retóricos. Las diferentes bases de la OTAN en Turquía han sido de gran importancia para el imperialismo occidental en Oriente Medio, inicialmente contra la Unión Soviética y luego para la intervención posterior al 11 de septiembre en el marco de la llamada “guerra contra el terrorismo”. Entre esas bases, se ha informado que la base militar de Incerlik se utiliza para apoyar al ejército israelí en su actual invasión de Gaza.

El comercio turco con Israel continúa a pesar del genocidio

Si bien Turquía se presenta como defensora de las palestinas, especialmente a través de la retórica de Erdogan, es revelador observar que Turquía es el sexto mayor proveedor de bienes a Israel. En particular, el 37% de la demanda israelí de hierro y acero se satisface mediante importaciones desde Turquía (2022) (1). Desde el comienzo de la guerra en octubre hasta diciembre, 700 barcos turcos fueron a Israel (¡8 por día!) para transportar material crucial para la guerra (petróleo, acero, textiles). Muchas de las empresas involucradas tienen estrechos vínculos con el AKP y Erdogan (2).

A pesar del genocidio que se está desarrollando en Gaza, Turquía continuó suministrando materiales que pueden usarse directamente para las atrocidades contra los palestinos en Gaza (3). Además, materiales de construcción como cemento, acero y maquinaria exportados desde Turquía podrían utilizarse en proyectos de construcción, incluidos los de zonas ocupadas. Estos materiales encuentran se pueden usar en diversos proyectos de construcción, incluida la infraestructura de apoyo a los asentamientos y la construcción de la barrera de separación, comúnmente conocida como muro. Cuando Turquía restringió las exportaciones de este estado a Israel por primera vez en abril, más de 30.000 palestinas habían muerto, 2,3 millones de personas habían sido desplazadas y gran parte de la Franja de Gaza había quedado reducida a escombros.

La prohibición total de las exportaciones anunciada por Erdogan el 3 de mayo tampoco parece haberse aplicado plenamente hasta el día de hoy (4). Cuando esta práctica fue descubierta a través de investigaciones periodísticas, el Ministerio de Comercio turco dio marcha atrás e introdujo un período de eliminación gradual de tres meses del comercio con Israel. El petróleo de Azerbaiyán, el principal proveedor de petróleo crudo de Israel (el 40% del suministro de petróleo de Israel depende de Azerbaiyán) (5), aparentemente también se sigue enviando a través de un puerto turco en Ceyhan (6).

Medidas como la recientemente anunciada prohibición de las exportaciones y el anuncio de unirse al proceso contra Israel ante la CIJ no se están tomando por buena voluntad. Debido a la presión política interna de los partidos y movimientos islamistas dentro de Turquía, que acusan al gobierno de Erdogan de inacción y, por lo tanto, pudieron arrebatar votos al AKP en las elecciones regionales de marzo, obligaron a Erdogan a actuar. Esto también queda claro cuando se observa la brutal represión de las protestas contra las relaciones comerciales con Israel.


El apoyo de Turquía a Hamás: aislar a Gaza

Si bien Turquía mantiene estrechos vínculos económicos con Israel y se beneficia de la tecnología de guerra israelí probada en Gaza, Turquía mantiene estrechas relaciones con Hamás. Hasta octubre de 2023, muchos funcionarios y líderes de alto rango de Hamás estaban exiliados en Turquía y Qatar. Sólo después de los ataques de Hamás del 7 de octubre fueron expulsados del país por temor a dañar las relaciones turco-israelíes (7). Hamás, que, al igual que otros movimientos islamistas, también contó con el apoyo del Estado de Israel en sus inicios (8) para debilitar la unidad palestina y marginar a los movimientos socialistas en Palestina, recibió apoyo político de Turquía. Con su apoyo, Turquía ha apoyado indirectamente la estrategia israelí de aislar a las palestinas de Gaza de las palestinas de Cisjordania.

Erdogan, que recientemente anunció en una conferencia de prensa en Grecia que más de 1.000 miembros de Hamás están siendo tratados en hospitales turcos (9), siempre ha utilizado la cuestión palestina como un medio para presentarse como mediador –como en el caso de la guerra de Ucrania– y mantener la imagen de un actor importante en la región.

Exponer al régimen turco del AKP-MHP

Al arrojar luz sobre la hipocresía turca en torno al genocidio en Gaza, resulta evidente que las maniobras de Erdogan no son nada más que una fachada. Las acciones visibles de Turquía parecen ser de apoyo a Palestina, pero se ven eclipsadas por su complicidad en alimentar la misma opresión a la que dice oponerse. Los intentos de Erdogan de presentarse como un defensor de los derechos palestinos suenan vacíos cuando se ven a través del lente de las alianzas estratégicas y los intereses económicos de Turquía. Es imperativo que revelemos esta hipocresía y responsabilicemos al régimen del AKP-MHP por su postura oportunista. El fascismo turco, bajo la forma del régimen del AKP, no ofrece ninguna solución. Ni para Palestina ni para Oriente Medio. La retórica del régimen en relación con Israel es a la vez mera retórica e hipocresía: mientras Turquía criticaba públicamente a Israel por sus ataques a civiles, aviones de combate y drones turcos destruyeron sistemáticamente infraestructura civil en Rojava, en el noreste de Siria, en diciembre y enero (10). Al exponer la hipocresía de Erdogan, podemos empoderar a las voces progresistas para combatir al fascismo turco y solidarizarnos con las aspiraciones genuinas del pueblo palestino y del pueblo de Rojava.

Riseup4Rojava Network, 16.05.2024

1 https://oec.world/en
2 https://www.turkishminute.com/2024/02/28/more-than-100-ton-of-good-shipped-israel-from-turkish-ports-in-last-3-days-alone-journalist/
3 https://x.com/snarwani/status/1775525493627879678
4 https://medyanews.net/turkey-bypasses-total-trade-ban-with-israel-facilitates-azerbaijani-oil-shipments-via-ceyhan/
5 https://oec.world/en/profile/bilateral-product/crude-petroleum/reporter/isr
6 https://www.intellinews.com/turkey-reportedly-still-loading-azerbaijani-oil-for-israel-despite-total-trade-ban-323947/
7 https://archive.ph/FlkK6
8 https://www.wsj.com/articles/SB123275572295011847
https://archive.ph/rwKYm#selection-1159.0-1159.313
9 https://www.al-monitor.com/originals/2024/05/erdogan-rebukes-greek-pm-calling-hamas-terrorists-says-1000-members-being-treated
10 https://rojavainformationcenter.org/2023/12/update-turkeys-christmas-airstrikes-targeting-nes-civilian-service-facilities-and-infrastructure/
https://rojavainformationcenter.org/2024/01/turkish-airstrikes-on-suwaydiyah-power-station-documenting-the-damage/


Verlogenheit der Türkei: Ankaras Rolle beim Völkermord AN DEN pALÄSTINENSERN

May 2024


Der von Israel an den Palästinensern begangene Völkermord, der nach den Hamas-Angriffen vom 7. Oktober eine noch schrecklichere Phase erreicht hat, wurde lautstark von Erdogan und anderen Mitgliedern des regierenden AKP-MHP-Regimes in der Türkei verurteilt. In den letzten Tagen hat das Erdogan-Regime konkretere Schritte unternommen, wie das Verbot des Exports türkischer Waren nach Israel und die Ankündigung, sich der Klage Südafrikas gegen Israel vor dem Internationalen Gerichtshof anzuschließen. So sehr die Türkei Solidarität mit den Palästinensern bekundet hat und so sehr Erdogan sich als Führer der muslimischen Welt und als Verteidiger der Palästinenser präsentiert hat, muss man sich doch fragen, was die zunehmend komplizierten Beziehungen zwischen der Türkei und Israel sowie zwischen der Türkei und den Palästinensern antreibt.

Historischer Kontext der türkisch-israelischen Beziehungen

Die enge Beziehung zwischen Israel und dem türkischen Staat hat ihre Wurzeln in den ersten Jahren der Gründung Israels. Die Türkei war 1949 der erste Staat im Nahen Osten, der Israel anerkannte. Seitdem hat die strategische Beziehung zwischen den beiden bis heute Bestand. Im Rahmen seiner „Peripheriedoktrin“ hat Israel seit seiner Gründung danach gestrebt, Allianzen mit der Türkei zu entwickeln, unter anderem um den Panarabismus zu bekämpfen. Über die Jahre wurden wichtige militärische Partnerschaften entwickelt, die Zusammenarbeit in den Bereichen Luft-, See- und Landstreitkräfte sowie Geheimdienstkooperation, die Herstellung von Flugzeugen, Waffen und Raketen, gegenseitige Ausbildung und Übungen umfassen. Bemerkenswerterweise haben israelische Luftwaffenpiloten im Rahmen gemeinsamer Übungen mit türkischen Streitkräften in der Türkei trainiert. Trotz oberflächlicher Reibungen, insbesondere nach dem Mavi-Marmara-Vorfall, der die diplomatischen Beziehungen beeinträchtigte, hat die Beziehung zwischen den Staaten nie aufgehört und wirtschaftliche Austausche entwickelten sich weiter, selbst während rhetorischer Auseinandersetzungen. Die verschiedenen NATO-Basen in der Türkei waren von großer Bedeutung für den westlichen Imperialismus im Nahen Osten, zunächst gegen die Sowjetunion und später nach dem 11. September im Rahmen des sogenannten „Kriegs gegen den Terror“. Es wurde berichtet, dass die Militärbasis Incirlik zur Unterstützung des israelischen Militärs bei seiner aktuellen Invasion in Gaza genutzt wird.


Türkische Exporte trotz Völkermord

Während die Türkei sich, insbesondere durch die Rhetorik von Erdogan, als Verteidiger der Palästinenser präsentiert, ist es aufschlussreich festzustellen, dass die Türkei der sechstgrößte Lieferant von Waren nach Israel ist. Nennenswert: 37 % des israelischen Bedarfs an Eisen und Stahl werden durch Importe aus der Türkei gedeckt (2022)1. Seit Beginn des Krieges im Oktober bis Dezember sind 700 türkische Schiffe nach Israel gefahren (8 pro Tag!), um wichtiges Material für den Krieg zu transportieren (Öl, Stahl, Textilien). Viele der beteiligten Unternehmen haben enge Verbindungen zur AKP und zu Erdogan2.

Trotz des Völkermords in Gaza hat die Türkei weiterhin Materialien geliefert, die direkt für die Gräueltaten gegen die Bevölkerung in Gaza verwendet werden könnten3. Darüber hinaus könnten aus der Türkei exportierte Baumaterialien wie Zement, Stahl und Maschinen in Bauprojekten, einschließlich derjenigen in besetzten Gebieten, verwendet werden. Diese Materialien finden Anwendung in verschiedenen Bauprojekten, einschließlich der Infrastruktur zur Unterstützung von Siedlungen und dem Bau der Trennmauer, die allgemein als “die Mauer” bekannt ist. Als die Türkei im April erstmals Exporte nach Israel einschränkte, waren bereits mehr als 30.000 Palästinenser getötet worden, 2,3 Millionen Menschen waren vertrieben und große Teile des Gazastreifens lagen in Trümmern.

Das von Erdogan am 3. Mai angekündigte totale Exportverbot scheint bis heute nicht vollständig umgesetzt worden zu sein4. Als diese Praxis durch Journalisten aufgedeckt wurde, ruderte das türkische Handelsministerium zurück und kündigte eine dreimonatige Auslaufphase für den Handel mit Israel an. Öl aus Aserbaidschan, Israels Hauptlieferant von Rohöl (40 % der israelischen Ölversorgung hängt von Aserbaidschan ab5), wird offenbar weiterhin über einen türkischen Hafen in Ceyhan verschifft6.

Schritte wie das kürzlich angekündigte Exportverbot und die Ankündigung, sich dem Verfahren gegen Israel vor dem Internationalen Gerichtshof anzuschließen, werden nicht aus Gutwilligkeit unternommen. Aufgrund des innenpolitischen Drucks, auch von islamistischen Parteien und Bewegungen innerhalb der Türkei, die der Erdogan-Regierung Untätigkeit vorwerfen und bei den Regionalwahlen im März der AKP Stimmen abnehmen konnten, sah sich Erdogan gezwungen zu handeln. Dies wird auch deutlich, wenn mensch sich das brutale Vorgehen gegen Proteste gegen die Handelsbeziehungen mit Israel in der Türkei ansieht.


Unterstützung der Türkei für die Hamas: Isolation von Gaza

Während die Türkei enge wirtschaftliche Beziehungen zu Israel pflegt und von der in Gaza getesteten israelischen Kriegstechnologie profitiert, unterhält sie enge Beziehungen zur Hamas. Bis Oktober 2023 waren viele Hamas-Funktionäre und hochrangige Führer im Exil in der Türkei und in Katar. Erst nach den Hamas-Angriffen am 7. Oktober wurden sie aus Angst vor Schäden an den türkisch-israelischen Beziehungen des Landes verwiesen7. Hamas, die wie andere islamistische Bewegungen in ihren frühen Tagen auch vom israelischen Staat unterstützt wurde8, um die palästinensische Einheit zu schwächen und sozialistische Bewegungen in Palästina zu marginalisieren, erhielt umfangreiche politische Unterstützung von der Türkei. Mit dieser Unterstützung hat die Türkei indirekt die israelische Strategie unterstützt, die Palästinenser in Gaza von den Palästinensern im Westjordanland zu isolieren.
Erdogan, der kürzlich auf einer Pressekonferenz in Griechenland ankündigte, dass mehr als 1.000 Hamas-Mitglieder in türkischen Krankenhäusern behandelt werden9, hat die palästinensische Frage immer als Mittel genutzt, um sich als Vermittler zu präsentieren – wie im Falle des Ukraine-Krieges – und das Bild eines wichtigen Akteurs in der Region zu wahren.


Heuchelei des türkischen AKP-MHP-Regimes aufdecken

Bei der Beleuchtung der türkischen Heuchelei rund um den Völkermord in Gaza wird deutlich, dass Erdogans Manöver nichts anderes als eine Fassade sind. Die Handlungen der Türkei scheinen auf den ersten Blick die Palästinenser zu unterstützen, werden jedoch von ihrer Mitschuld an der Unterdrückung, die sie angeblich bekämpft, überschattet. Erdogans Versuche, sich als Verteidiger der palästinensischen Rechte darzustellen, klingen hohl, wenn man sie im Kontext der strategischen Allianzen und wirtschaftlichen Interessen der Türkei betrachtet. Es ist unerlässlich, diese Heuchelei aufzudecken und das AKP-MHP-Regime für ihr opportunistisches Gehabe zur Verantwortung zu ziehen. Der türkische Faschismus in Form des AKP-Regimes bietet weder für Palästina noch für den Nahen Osten Lösungen. Die Rhetorik des Regimes im Zusammenhang mit Israel ist nichts weiter als bloße Rhetorik und Heuchelei: Während die Türkei Israel öffentlich für Angriffe auf Zivilisten kritisiert, zerstörten türkische Kampfflugzeuge und Drohnen systematisch zivile Infrastruktur in Rojava, Nordostsyrien, im Dezember und Januar10. Indem wir Erdogans Heuchelei entlarven, können wir progressive Stimmen stärken, um den türkischen Faschismus zu konfrontieren und in Solidarität mit den echten Bestrebungen des palästinensischen Volkes und des Volkes von Rojava zu stehen.

Riseup4Rojava Network, 16.05.2024

1 https://oec.world/en
2 https://www.turkishminute.com/2024/02/28/more-than-100-ton-of-good-shipped-israel-from-turkish-ports-in-last-3-days-alone-journalist/
3 https://x.com/snarwani/status/1775525493627879678
4 https://medyanews.net/turkey-bypasses-total-trade-ban-with-israel-facilitates-azerbaijani-oil-shipments-via-ceyhan/
5 https://oec.world/en/profile/bilateral-product/crude-petroleum/reporter/isr
6 https://www.intellinews.com/turkey-reportedly-still-loading-azerbaijani-oil-for-israel-despite-total-trade-ban-323947/
7 https://archive.ph/FlkK6
8 https://www.wsj.com/articles/SB123275572295011847
https://archive.ph/rwKYm#selection-1159.0-1159.313
9 https://www.al-monitor.com/originals/2024/05/erdogan-rebukes-greek-pm-calling-hamas-terrorists-says-1000-members-being-treated
10 https://rojavainformationcenter.org/2023/12/update-turkeys-christmas-airstrikes-targeting-nes-civilian-service-facilities-and-infrastructure/
https://rojavainformationcenter.org/2024/01/turkish-airstrikes-on-suwaydiyah-power-station-documenting-the-damage/


Turkey’s deception: Ankara’s role in the Palestinian genocide

May 2024
Article in: ItalianSpanishGermanTurkishFarsi


The genocide committed by Israel against the Palestinian people, which has entered an even more horrific phase after the Hamas attacks of October 7, has been loudly condemned by Erdogan and other members of the AKP-MHP regime that rules Turkey, and in recent days the Erdogan regime has taken more concrete steps, such as banning the export of Turkish exports to Israel and announcing that it will join South Africa’s lawsuit against Israel at the International Court of Justice. As much as Turkey has expressed solidarity with the Palestinians, as much as Erdogan has presented himself as the leader of the Muslim world and champion of the Palestinians, one has to wonder what is driving the increasingly coercive relations between Turkey and Israel and Turkey and the Palestinians.
The genocide committed by Israel against the Palestinian people, which has entered an even more horrific phase after the Hamas attacks of October 7, has been loudly condemned by Erdogan and other members of the AKP-MHP regime that rules Turkey, and in recent days the Erdogan regime has taken more concrete steps, such as banning the export of Turkish exports to Israel and announcing that it will join South Africa’s lawsuit against Israel at the International Court of Justice. As much as Turkey has expressed solidarity with the Palestinians, as much as Erdogan has presented himself as the leader of the Muslim world and champion of the Palestinians, one has to wonder what is driving the increasingly complicated relations between Turkey and Israel and Turkey and the Palestinians.


Historical context of Turkish Israel relationships

The close relationship between Israel and Turkish state has its roots in the very first years of the creation of Israel. Turkey was the first state in the middle east to recognize Israel, in 1949. Since then, strategical relationship between the two have perdured until today. In the frame of its “periphery doctrine” Israel has seeked since its foundation to develop alliances with Turkey, among other to counter pan-arabism. Important military partnerships that include air, sea land and intelligence cooperation, manufacturing of aircraft, armamant and missiles, mutual training and exercice have been developed over the years. Remarkably, Israeli airforce pilots have been training in Turkey in the frame of joint exercises with Turkish forces. Despite superficial frictions, notably following the Mavi Marmara case which damaged a certain level of diplomatic ties, the relation between the states never ceased and economical exchanges further developed even during peak of rethorical clashes. The different NATO bases in Turkey have been vastly important for western imperialism in middle east, initially against the Soviet Union, then later for intervention post September 11 in the frame of the so called “war on terror”. Among those bases, the Incerlik military base has been reported to be used to support Israeli military in it’s current invasion of Gaza.


Turkish trade with Israel continues despite genocide

While Turkey presents itself as a defender of the Palestinians, especially through the rhetoric of Erdogan, it is revealing to note that Turkey stands as the sixth largest supplier of goods to Israel. Notably, 37% of Israel’s demand for Iron and Steel is met through imports from Turkey (2022)1. Since the beginning of the war in October until December, 700 Turkish ships went to Israel (8 per day!) to transport crucial material for the war (oil, steel, textile). Many of the companies involved have close to ties to the AKP and Erdogan2.

Despite genocide unfolding in Gaza, Turkey continued to supplied materials that may be directly used for the atrocities against the Palestinians in Gaza3. Moreover construction materials such as cement, steel, and machinery exported from Turkey might be used in building projects, including those in occupied areas. These materials find application in various construction projects, including infrastructure supporting settlements and the construction of the separation barrier, commonly known as the wall. When Turkey restricted exports from Turkey to Israel for the first time in April, more than 30,000 Palestinians have been killed, 2.3 million people were displaced and large parts of the Gaza Strip were reduced to rubble.

The total export ban announced by Erdogan on May 3 also does not appear to have been fully implemented until this day4. When this practice was uncoverd through journalistic investigations, the Turkish Ministry of Trade rowed back and introduced a three-month phase-out period for trade with Israel. Oil from Azerbaijan, Israel’s main supplier of crude oil (40% of Israels oil supply depends on Azerbaijan5), is apparently also still being shipped through a Turkish port in Ceyhan6.

Steps such as the recently announced export ban and the announcement to join the proceedings against Israel before the ICJ are not beeing done out of goodwill. Due to domestic political pressure from Islamist parties and movements inside Turkey, which accuse the Erdogan government of inaction and were thus able to snatch votes from the AKP in the regional elections in March forced Erdogan to act. This also becomes clear when looking at the brutal crackdown on protests against trade relations with Israel.


Turkey’s support for Hamas: Isolating Gaza

While Turkey maintains close economic ties with Israel and benefits from Israeli war technology tested in Gaza, Turkey maintains tight relations with Hamas. Until October 2023, many Hamas officials and high-ranking leaders were in exile in Turkey and Qatar. It was only after the Hamas attacks on October 7 that they were expelled from the country for fear of damaging Turkish-Israeli relations7. Hamas, which, like other Islamist movements, was also supported by the Israeli state in its early days8 in order to weaken Palestinian unity and marginalize socialist movements in Palestine, received political support from Turkey. With its support, Turkey has indirectly supported the Israeli strategy of isolating the Palestinians in Gaza from the Palestinians in the Wets Bank.
Erdogan, who recently announced at a press conference in Greece that more than 1,000 Hamas members are being treated in Turkish hospitals9, has always used the Palestinian issue as a means of presenting himself as a mediator – as in the case of the Ukraine war – and maintaining the image of an important player in the region.


Expose the Turkish AKP-MHP regime

In shedding light on Turkish hypocrisy surrounding the Genocide in Gaza, it becomes evident that Erdogan’s maneuvers are nothing short of a facade. Turkey’s actions, on the surface seem to be in support of Palestine, but are overshadowed by its complicity in fueling the very oppression it claims to oppose. Erdogan’s attempts to paint himself as a champion of Palestinian rights ring hollow when viewed through the lens of Turkey’s strategic alliances and economic interests. It’s imperative that we unveil this hypocrisy and hold the AKP-MHP regime accountable for their opportunistic posturing. Turkish fascism, in the form of the AKP regime, does not offer any solutions. Neither for Palestine nor for the Middle East. The regime’s rhetoric in relation to Israel is both mere rhetoric and hypocrisy: While Turkey publicly blasts Israel for attacks on civilians, Turkish fighter jets and drones systematically destroyed civilian infrastructure in Rojava, North-East Syria in December and January10. By exposing Erdogan’s hypocrisy, we can empower progressive voices to confront Turkish fascism and stand in solidarity with the genuine aspirations of the Palestinian people and the people of Rojava.

Riseup4Rojava Network, 16.05.2024

1 https://oec.world/en
2 https://www.turkishminute.com/2024/02/28/more-than-100-ton-of-good-shipped-israel-from-turkish-ports-in-last-3-days-alone-journalist/
3 https://x.com/snarwani/status/1775525493627879678
4 https://medyanews.net/turkey-bypasses-total-trade-ban-with-israel-facilitates-azerbaijani-oil-shipments-via-ceyhan/
5 https://oec.world/en/profile/bilateral-product/crude-petroleum/reporter/isr
6 https://www.intellinews.com/turkey-reportedly-still-loading-azerbaijani-oil-for-israel-despite-total-trade-ban-323947/
7 https://archive.ph/FlkK6
8 https://www.wsj.com/articles/SB123275572295011847
https://archive.ph/rwKYm#selection-1159.0-1159.313
9 https://www.al-monitor.com/originals/2024/05/erdogan-rebukes-greek-pm-calling-hamas-terrorists-says-1000-members-being-treated
10 https://rojavainformationcenter.org/2023/12/update-turkeys-christmas-airstrikes-targeting-nes-civilian-service-facilities-and-infrastructure/
https://rojavainformationcenter.org/2024/01/turkish-airstrikes-on-suwaydiyah-power-station-documenting-the-damage/


Abdullah Öcalan’s May the 1st message

01.05.2024

Foreword

Since the 1980s, Abdullah Öcalan has always used the international day of struggle of the working class as an opportunity to analyse the situation of the world socialist movement and to derive perspectives for the struggle for self-determination and socialism in Kurdistan and the Middle East. After his abduction and imprisonment on the 15th of February, 1999, his opportunities to make himself known to the outside world were limited to short messages that only managed to get past the prison walls via his lawyers. Nevertheless, he never missed an opportunity to address his movement and the public with messages of greetings on the occasion of the working women’s day of struggle on the 8th of March, the Kurdish New Year, Newroz, on the 21st of March or the 1st of May. This text is a message from Abdullah Öcalan on the occasion of the 1st of May demonstration in Amed (Diyarbakir) in 2014. It is Abdullah Öcalan’s last May the 1st message before he was subjected to a stricter detention regime and total isolation in April 2015.


Long live the solidarity of the working class and all peoples!

Socialism is more necessary than ever, but at the same time the distance from socialist ideology and practice is an expression of both the crisis of socialism and that of capitalism. The crisis of socialism is not due to objective causes. The crisis is due to subjective factors, namely the lack of a consistent consciousness, a coherent organisation and coherent action. There is no doubt that the ideological hegemony of capitalism is the most important external factor here. But what is decisive is the lack of a socialist ideology and practice. Instead, there is an eclectic approach and an eclectic practice.


Either society or nothingness

In this era of hegemonic finance capitalism, the attack is directed not only against labour, but against society as a whole, its history, ecology and future. This means: socialism or barbarism, society or nothingness.
The gene of capitalism, which has emerged like a gnawing rat in the depths of history, has infected the entire social body of our time like cancer. There is no doubt that the information monopoly has also played an important role in this. For social liberation, it is therefore essential to wage the information war in unity with the struggle for the moral-political society.
To do this, we must oppose the three pillars that support the system – capital monopoly, industrialism and the nation state – with a socialism based on the communal economy, ecological industry and the democratic nation. In other words, we must create the alternative to capitalist modernity through democratic modernity.
The hybrid systems of real socialism, social democracy and national liberation have failed because they did not go beyond a one-sided developmental economism in the struggle against capitalist modernity. They turned capitalism into a raging monster. The path to salvation is democratic modernity based on the democratic nation, ecological industry and the communal economy.


The freedom movement is leading the way

Today, the Middle East is the weakest link in the hegemonic system. In a way, a third world war is taking place there. Kurdistan is at the centre of this region. The freedom movement is capable of leading the anti-hegemonic struggle of all peoples, nations and cultural groups in this region. The workers and the unemployed must lead this struggle with their own ideological and practical weapons. By learning from their history and making the history of the peoples of the region their own, they must assume the leadership role for the whole of society, especially for the peasantry and the suburbs.
By defining its historical mission in this way, the PKK resolutely expresses its internationalist solidarity with the working class of Turkiye, all working people and the peoples of the region and promises to fulfil this solidarity with its practice.

Long live the solidarity of the working class and all peoples!
Down with capitalist hegemony!

Abdullah Ocalan

Typ F prison Imrali

  1. April 2014


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